The beginnings of modern urban design in Europe are associated with the Renaissance but, especially, with the Age of Enlightenment.
In the Baroque period the design approaches developed in French formal gardens such as Versailles were extended into urban development and redevelopment.
The expansion created many hardships for the working poor and concern for health and safety increased.
However, the laissez-faire style of government, in fashion for most of the Victorian era, was starting to give way to a New Liberalism. The public wanted the government to provide citizens, especially factory workers, with healthier environments.
Urban planning focuses on public health and urban design.
Within the discipline, modern urban design developed.
Urban design is an inter-disciplinary subject that utilizes elements of many built environment professions, including landscape architecture, urban planning, architecture, civil and municipal engineering.