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Whereas the radius of communication of a village tavern was generally small, hostels on major roads collected news from considerably more distant places.In At these gathering places, people would arrive with either something to report or something they wanted to learn more about.European courts and cities, but also the church, merchants' societies, religious orders and universities, had been establishing messenger systems ever since the late Middle Ages.

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It was not script, but rather the invention of the more economical storage medium paper that caused the oral transmission of news to be eventually replaced to some degree.

The increasing circulation of initially confidential diplomatic messages due to dissemination among friends, secretaries and clients became a problem for political agents relying on secrecy.

When such (national) linguistic or regional-political borders have been surmounted, it is possible to speak of transnational communication.

Here, transnational is to be distinguished from international, for the communication not only crosses the borders between states and institutions, but also between groups and individuals as well as actors who cannot be accurately classified according to a linguistically or regionally and politically defined concept of nationalism.

For this reason, there are very few extant written messages from the period before 1300.

Last modified 21-Dec-2016 12:06